USDA Wildlife Services to Use $1.3 M to Implement, Evaluate Nonlethal Predation Management Tools

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USDA Wildlife Services to Use $1.3 M to Implement, Evaluate

Nonlethal Predation Management Tools


The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wildlife Services (WS) program has identified 12 states where it will implement nonlethal strategies to reduce or prevent depredation on livestock by wildlife. The fiscal year 2020 budget allocated $1.38 million for nonlethal predator damage management and research to the program that is part of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service agency.


Use of the allocated funds will be tailored to address varied needs in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming under the supervision of the WS director in each state. The state directors will also collaborate with State and local agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academia to expand the work through cost-share and cooperative funding.


The majority of the funding supports WS’ operational efforts, including:

  • Hiring of full-time or seasonal employees to conduct nonlethal methods (range riding, installation and maintenance of fencing and fladry);
  • Presenting workshops, educational sessions, and outreach that promotes the best techniques for use of nonlethal methods; and
  • Purchasing nonlethal tools and scare devices for immediate use or to establish loan programs for producers.

The WS National Wildlife Research Center will conduct a broad-scale research evaluation focusing on the effectiveness of nonlethal management strategies to prevent livestock depredation. In particular, the Center will assess rancher satisfaction with the nonlethal techniques, any barriers to use of the techniques, and changes in producers’ attitudes towards nonlethal predator management as a result of their use of nonlethal techniques and assistance by WS personnel. It also will assess the cost-effectiveness of the techniques used.


WS provides federal leadership and expertise to resolve human-wildlife conflicts using multiple strategies. As a service program, it responds to requests from persons and agencies needing help with wildlife damage and contributing to the cost of the assistance. About 25-30 percent of its overall budget protects agricultural resources. WS uses the science-based Integrated Wildlife Damage Management (IWDM) approach, which employs and recommends a combination of multiple tools and techniques (lethal and nonlethal).


Increasingly, livestock producers employ nonlethal methods: 93 percent of goat operations and 58 percent of sheep ranchers employ nonlethal techniques. The use of such methods by cattle producers has increased six-fold since the year 2000, with 19 percent of cattle operations using nonlethal methods. Nonetheless, livestock producers report annual losses to predators of more than 590,000 head of cattle, calves, sheep, lambs, goats and kids valued at $168 million. Additional livestock injured by predators, but not killed, are valued at $59.4 million.


The Congressional allocation will be used to continue increased use and understanding of nonlethal methods to prevent or reduce the killing of livestock by predators. The most common predators are coyote and dogs. Depending on the state and immediate area predators include wolves, bear and grizzly bear, and mountain lions.