Ethnic group outcomes, Census 2021

View as a webpage

office for national statistics

News, stories and data visualisation

15 March 2023

Ethnic group differences in health, employment, education and housing shown in England and Wales' Census 2021

A graphic showing a group of people with icons representing health, employment, education and housing.

The census tells us about people’s lives, whether people were working, or living in a crowded home, if they were disabled or providing care for others, how much education they had received, and if they considered themselves in good or poor health.

We found these outcomes varied considerably for ethnic groups across England and Wales.

Ethnicity on the census is self-reported; people said which group they feel best describes their ethnic identity. The 19 ethnic groups in this article are tick-box selections within five main categories, which are part of people’s answers.

  • Professional occupations were most common for people who identified as “Indian” and “Chinese” (these are people who selected “Indian” or “Chinese” within “Asian, Asian British or Asian Welsh”).
  • Social rented housing was more common for people within “Black, Black British, Black Welsh, Caribbean or African” groups.
  • Self-reported health is worse for people who said they were “Gypsy or Irish Traveller” (within the “White” ethnic category).

These are just some of the findings that the census gives us on how people live in England and Wales across ethnic groups. 

Read the full article